您现在的位置:

累积变形 >

英文读后感

Thoughtson《1587,ayearofnosignificance》RayHuang’sworks《1587,ayearofnosignificance》,writtenfromamacro-historyperspective,selectedaspecificyearof1587bywhichthepreviousfirstgrand-secretaryChangChu-chenghadpassedawayforfiveyearsandfocusedon6representativefigureswithdifferentidentitiesincludingoneemperor,threecivilofficials,onemilitaryofficerandonephilosopher.Thebookcanbedescribedasachronicleoffailurewhetherinpolitics,economyormilitary,amongwhich,politicalfailurewastheroot.Nomatterhowexcellentandresponsiblethesefigureswere,allendeavorsseemedtoresultinvain.Thisarticlefallsinto3parts,includingelaborationsaboutContradictions,CompromiseandCollapse.IContradictionsIt’snothardtodrawtheconclusionthatcontradictionsprevailedeveryaspectsandlevelsofthisdynastyandthisdynastywasdoomedbythisperiod,afterreadingthisbookaswellasrelevantliterature.1.Emperorvscivilofficialgroup:Theformerwasexpectedtoperformjustlikeapuppetandactinanimpeccableandmeticulousmannerbythelatter,whowouldcriticizetheformerateventrifledetails.InWan-liEmperor’swords,theywere“earninganameofrighteousnessbypayingthepenaltyofbeingdisrespectfuloftheemperor”(讪君卖直).Eunuchscouldactasagentsfortheemperors.Asmartemperorshouldmakewelluseofeunuchsinorderformoreroomforcoordinationandmitigation.Secretagenciesshouldalsobeputtogoodusetokeeptheemperorwell-informedaboutcurrentsituationinordernottobeeasilyfooledbytheofficials.Wasitjustcoincidentalthat,EmperorCheng-teandTian-qi,whohadnotliveduptothecivilofficials’expectations,bothdiedofdrowningatayoungageallofasudden?2.Civilofficialsvsmilitaryofficers:Underthesystem,thelatterwhohadbeendealingwithmilitaryaffairshiswholelife,wassupposedtobeobediencetothedeploymentoftheformer,someofwhomevenhadneverbeentothebattlefront.3.Gapbetweensocialclasses:Theancientfeudalsocietywasdividedinto4categoriesofclassesincluding“scholar,farmer,artisanandmerchant”.Theintellectualclasshadaprivilegeoftaxexemption.Farmerandartisan,attheverybottomofthesocialladder,weremostheavilyexploited,amanifestationofadistortedandunfairruleof“exploitingtheimpoverishedtopatronizetheaffluent”(损不足而奉有余).Themerchants,bycollaborationwiththebureaucrats,couldmakeahandsomeprofitatanexplicitcommercialtaxationrateof1/30.Thoughbanonmaritimetradewasstillobserved,powerfulseamerchantscouldmaketensofmillionsofouncesofsilver,muchlargerthantheannualtaxationincomeoflateMingDynasty.Thesocietyhadatypicalstructureof“submarinesandwich”,consistingofanover-sizedcorpsofcivilofficialsandalargenumberofpeasantsunorganized.4.Areasafflictedbywarsanddisastersvsareasrelativelytranquil:Thenorth-w···grainyieldasaresultoftheperiodofMinorIceAge,whichconstitutedafatalstriketoanenormousagriculture-basedempirewithahugepopulation.Inthemeantime,situationinsouthernareaswasrelativelybetter.However,therulingclassofthiscountryneverseemedtofindawaytobridgethegapsbetweendifferentareasorclasses,soastorelievethepoor,theafflictedjustalittleb继发性癲痫多久发作一次it.5.Conflictsinsidethecivilofficialgroupitself:Bythisstageofthedynasty,consensuscouldhardlybeachieved.Onthecontrary,therewereendlessverbalquarrelsandwrittendebatesbetweenthemoverinsignificantincidentsorabstractmoralityissues.InShenShih-hsing’swords,thecountrywasinadangerousstatusof“acleavagebetweenthetopandthebottom,aseparationoftheinteriorfromtheexterior”(上下否鬲,中外睽携).Theopinionsoftheemperorandfirstgrand-secretarywhohadawholepictureofsituationoftenvariedfromthoseofgeneralcivilofficialswhomainlybaredinminddepartmentalandpartialinterest.Asforthegeneralcivilofficials,itwasunspokenbutwidelyobeyedthateverybodyclaimedtolivebytheprofessedmoralcodelabeledasyang(阳),butinpracticeactedupontheirhiddendesiresandmotivationslabeledasyin(阴).Tracingback,thereasonforgeneralfailureinvariousrealmslayinthefactthat,thesystemestablishedintheveryearlyyearsoftheMingdynasty,whichwasinitiallytailoredforasmall-scalepeasanteconomybythedynasticfounder,couldnolongercomplywiththedevelopmentoftheeconomyandsociety.Theextenttowhichtheadministrationofanimmenseempirewithsuchcomplexitywasheavilyreliantonmoralcode,insteadoflawsandtechniques,wasunprecedented.Asaresult,thesocietywasbarelyunderefficientandeffectivemanagement,intheauthor’swords,“mathematicallyunmanageable”.Havingeliminatedpotentialthreatsfromimperialprinces,imperialconsort’sfamilyandprimeministers,Hong-wuemperor,founderofthisdynasty,hadmadeseriousmistakesinestablishingthesystem,whichfinallyledtoseriousoutcomesthroughoutthedynasty.I’dliketosummarizethedeep-rootedreasonsofthefailuresasfollows:1.Theout-datedandunfairtaxationsystem:Firstly,theimplementationofphysicaltaxsysteminsteadofmonetarytaxsystemwasagreatsetbackevencomparedwiththesysteminSongDynasty.Underthissystem,“thelowestcivilofficecouldberequiredtomakedeliveriesatascoreofdisbursingagencies,eachofwhichwouldinreturnreceiveconsignmentsfromascoreofsuppliers”.Conclusionscouldbedrawnfromabovethatgreatproportionoflossofmaterialobjectsaswellasefficiencywouldbeincurredinthis“multi-unitstomulti-units”deliverymechanism,resultinginproblemsconcerningquantity,qualityandefficiency,whichshouldbeheldaccountablefornumerousmilitaryfailures.Secondly,thetaxationexemptionprivilegegrantedtothegroupofthecivilofficialgroupandtheintellectualwaslargelyabusedandfinallydrainedthefinancialresourcesofthecountry.Thirdly,taxationrateforcommercewassetatanunreasonablylowrate.Moreover,thegovernmentstrictlyabidedbythepolicyofbanofmaritimetrade,whichwasactuallyfutileforpowerfulseamerchants,possiblyincollaborationwithgovernmentalofficials,causingaconsiderabletaxationleakinthenationalincome.Thesocietywasrunbyheavyrelianceonmoralcodesandimplicitrules,insteadofdistinctlawsandexplicitrules,providingmuchroomforrent-seekingandmanipulation.Asaresult,whereaslargeamountofwealthwenttoprivatepockets,thecentralgovernmentwasalwaysfacingseriousrevenueshortage,whichdeterioratedtheineffectivesystemoflogi患了癫痫病会有生命危险吗sticsandorganizationanddidn'tcontributetoextendedreproductionastheChinesehadatraditionofaccumulatingwealthbypurchasinglandsorhidingawaytopassontothedescendants.2.Rigidhouseholdregistrationsystemwhichaimedtocontrolidentitiesstrictlyandlimitthealterationtotheminimum.Professionofeverymemberofthissocietywasdeterminedbytiesofblood,insteadofpersonalaspiration.Consequently,thisledtoaminimizationofvitalityofthesocietyandinnovationincentives.Taketheartisanprofessionasanexample,thisinstitutionalarrangementonlyresultedinunstandardizedflawedproductsandlowefficiency,whichwasheldaccountablefornumerousmilitaryfailures.Lineagesofmilitaryhouseholdswasalsoprovedtobeasystemwithplentyofweaknesses.3.Theabolishmentofthepositionofprimeministerwiththesubstituteoffirstgrand-secretariesleftroomforambiguitywhichtoacertainextentshouldbeheldresponsibleforthestatusof“acleavagebetweenthetopandthebottom”(上下否鬲).becausedidn’thavereciprocalauthority.4.Thesalaryscalesettoolowmadepeopleofdifferentidentitiesfeeljustifiedtoearnextraincome.5.Theatmosphereofover-judgingandcriticizingothersincludingtheemperorespeciallybythecensorofficialsaswellaspublicopinionsveryoftenovertrifledetailswithabstractchargesmightleadtoevasionfromresponsibility.AtypicalexamplewasthehesitationofboththeChong-zhenemperorandhisgrand-secretariestomakeimportantdecisionssuchassummoningtheprovincialtroopstorescuePekingagainstthepeasantuprisingarmy,movingthecapitaltoNan-kingorsendingtheimperialheirtoNan-king.Actuallytheyfailedtomakinganymove,justawaitingfortheirdoompassively.IICompromiseLet’stakeanoverviewofcharactersinthisbook,noneofwhomhadtriedtolaunchareformagainsttheexistingsystem.EvenChangChu-chengwasjustmakingminoradjustmentsinsomeaspects,thecoreofwhichincludedthemeasuringofnationallandsandevaluationofofficial’sperformance,theformerreceivinggreatresistancefrominterestgroupsandputtoanenduponhisdeath,thelatternullifiedbyShenShih-hsing.Notonlywasheposthumouslydisgracedandhisfamilymaltreated,buthiseffortsalsocamenowhere.ShenShih-hsing,asarighteous,tolerantandperseverantman,whohadattemptedtobridgethegapbetweentheemperorandtheofficialgroup,wasfinallycompelledtoresigndirectlyduetothesuccessionissue.Infact,thedeep-rootedreasonswereasstatedinpartone.Anyoneholdingthepositionoffirstgrand-secretaries,evenasage,wouldbeviewedasspokemanoftheemperorandunspokenenemyofthecivilofficialgroup.HaiJui,amodelofficialactingstrictlybythemoralcodes,didn'tgoalongwiththegeneraltricksof“yin”and“yang”bythegeneralcivilofficialsandtriedtosolvetheproblemsconcerningusury,whichputhimselfundersevereattacksbyhisopposers.ItwasworthnotingthatapersonwithamoralstandingashighasHaiJui,wasattackedbyhisopposersunderthedisguiseofmoralityissues,butactuallyduetothefactsthattheirinterestswereimpairedbyHaiJui’sactions.HaiJuispenthislastyearsataidlepositionwhichwasagainsthisdown-to-earthnature.Ch’iChi-kuangachievedsuccessbythesupportofChangChu-che河北省治疗癫痫病好的医院在哪里ng.Itwassadforhimthatonlybythiswaycouldheattainexternaleffortandexertedhisowntalents.Itwassadforthecountrythatanexcellentmilitarytalentwasputasideforpersonnelreasons.LiChih,whobegantoraisequestionsaboutissuesprevailingChinaforthousandsofyearssuchasmonarchicalpower,feudalsociety,confucianism,hadbeenseekingananswerandanwayoutthroughouthisremainderoflifebutonlybecamemoreconfused,thoughheleftusvaluableworksandthevaluablespiritofprobing.Inspiteoftheirexcellenceandperseverance,alldifferentattemptshadcometoadeadend.Alloftheireffortshadnotexceededtheinstitutionalframework,whichwasstillintolerantbytheexistinginterestgroup,whowouldratherreservethisambiguous,undynamic,obsoletesystemsoastoprovideconveniencefortheirmanipulationandrent-seekingacts.Asthesystemwasdesignedinthesolepursuitofmaintainingastableandself-sufficientsocietyandbarelyaddressedthepresentsituationandissues,allotherpursuitsoffairness,efficiencyandeffectivenesshadtogivewaytostability.TakingtheBattleofSarhūin1619asanexample,thefactorsofadecisiontogotowarinarushwithoutfullpreparationpriortothemarching,lackofcarefuldeploymentandclosecoordinationofindependenttroops,ill-trainedsoldiers,unstandardisedweaponsofbadquality,theneglectofinformationservice,insustainability andnon-elasticityofthefinancialrevenuesystem……madethefailureaninevitableoutcome.Troopsof10thousandsofsoldierswerewipedoutonebyonewithinaweek.Theinfluenceofthisbattlewasprofound,confidenceofthewholeempiredeclinedtoafreezingpoint.Whatwasthemostpatheticlayinthedisposalofthemilitarycommandersrelevant.Thebraveoneswhodiedoffightingonthebattlefieldwereframedasscapegoatssoastofreeothersoftheliability,whilethetimidoneswhocowardlyescapedfromthebattlefieldwasabsolvedinhopeoffuturereinstation.Theutterunfairnessinthedisposalofmilitaryofficersinthisbattleandthesubsequentoneswasaclearmanifestationof“badmoneydrivesoutgood”principle.Insummary,thesystemwassoobsoleteandobstinatethatitallowedquitelimitedroomforslightimprovementandinnovation.Undersuchsystem,therewasnopossibilityforsuccess.Whatwasdifferentwasonlywhichspecificreasonswereliableforthespecificfailure.Buttheresultoffailurewasinevitable.WhywouldtheMingdynasty,withsomanytalentsofsuchwisdom,determinationanddevotion,eventuallyfallintosuchblunder?SupposingoccasionalissuessuchasthesuccessionissueorWan-liEmperor’sgrudgetowardsChangChu-cheng’sstrictturorshipneverhappened,wouldthisempireachievedabetterstatus?Theanswerwasstillno.Itwasnotlongbeforeperniciousconsequencesunveiled.Allpeopleoftheempire,indifferentorconcernedaboutNortheasternregionissues,weretopaythepricetwodecadeslater,astestifiedbynumerousmassacresperepetratedbytheQingarmyforcesinYangzhou,Jiading,Guangzhouetc,causingadrasticfallofpopulationoftensofmillions.Whoshouldbeaccountedforthisfataldisaster,theemperor,thecivilofficialgroup,provincialgovernors,gentrystratum……?Actually,nosnowflakeinanavalanchewasinnocent.Onlybybloodanddeath治疗癫痫的好中医方sdidsomepeoplebegintorealizethatnomancouldbeanislandfreefromthewholecontinent,whichwasalreadytoolate.IIICollapseAsstatedabove,thecollapsewasanaturalconclusion.Tracingbackfurther,failurewasdoomedsincetheAn-ShihRebellioninTangDynasty,afterwhichChinahadlostforeverandfailedtoretrieveeverafteritsairofease,confidenceandopenness.Thesubsequentrulingclasseshadbecomemoreandmoreconservativeandretrogressive.Theoutcomewascatastrophic.Notonlylosingthereignofthisdynasty,butthegeneralpublic,nobleorhumble,alsohadtobendtoforceandcastawaythetraditionalcultureandcustomstheyhadabidedbyforalongterm,whichevokedanotherroundofresistance.Let’scastoureyesoneventsthathappenedaroundtheworld:GreatandMostFortunateNavysetsailtoconquertheAmericancontinent,EuropeancountrieshadbeengoingthroughRenaissance,Russiawasbusyexpandingitsterritory……Entering16thcentury,othercountriesintheworldseemedtosteponahigh-speedtrainatanacceleratedvelocity,whileourempireseemedtobeheldstillorevenslidingbackwards.Thecontrastinthereversedevelopmentpatternshaddrawnthecivilizationrankofourempireintheworldfatherawayfromthoseofwesterncountries.Thegloryoftheoldempirefadingout,atthecrucialturningpointofhistory,whatmustbedonehadtodone,whatmustbegonethroughhadtobegonethrough,beforeenteringawholenewera.万历十五年以大历史观(即推后几十年以上看影响)的视角,截取了1587作横断面,叙述了6位身份角色各自不同的人物,都是各领域的佼佼者,结局却无一不败。第一部分:矛盾重重。充斥社会各领域各层面。1.皇帝与文官集团之争。万历皇帝用了个词,讪君卖直。内监其实可作其代言人,厂卫为其耳目,精明的皇帝应善加利用,不应自废武功。2.文武之争。外行指挥内行。3.士农工商各阶层的利益未得到好好协调,损不足而奉有余,商与士阶层勾联,农工被踩在脚底。社会结构有如美国潜水艇夹肉面包,上面是一块长面包,大而无当,此乃文官集团;下面也是一块长面包,也没有有效的组织,此乃成千上万的农民。4.地区之间差距。西北东北饱受战争灾荒,东南相对承平。但国家并无相应机制加以调度。5.文官集团内部之争。首辅被默认为皇帝代言人而不被百官信任。文官集团内部之间好以道德大义之名大做文章,争什么不要紧,道德只是为了不可告人的目的拉来的伪装,即“阴”与“阳”之术。这种状态申时行总结为“上下否鬲,中外睽携”。向前追溯,在洪武朝就埋下了失败的种子,太祖设计了一个适应小农经济的制度安排,随社会发展大多落为一纸空文或成为阻碍。后人却因祖制之名只能小修小补、敲敲打打。帝国缔造者消除了来自藩王、后戚及丞相的威胁,但有些制度缺陷影响深远。1落后的财税安排,比之宋朝都多有不足,一是采用实物税,多对多的安排必然导致数量、质量、效率上的漏损。二是给士绅阶层免税,最后造成很多隐户,到国家财政资源枯竭时其利益实际上与国家利益相对立了。三是商税税率设置过低,且有太多潜规则,又实施海禁(实际上总有禁不住),造成寻租空间,大量财富进入私人腰包,损失海上贸易收入,国家没有得到一分钱好处。2.僵化的户藉制度。反人性的制度安排。匠户制度,非标准化产品,质效低下。军户卫所制度。3.取消丞相,而以内阁首辅代之,但首辅之权威并不足够,上下离心纷争。4.低下不合实际的工资水平。人们可心安理得地去之追求额外收入。5.以道德治国,过度的批评文化,导致人们不敢担当,上至皇帝,崇祯皇帝最后表现为典型。第二部分妥协修补。皇帝从勤政到无为而治,张居正汲汲求治却人亡政息,丈量土地、考成法都被废止,申时行从尽力协调到被迫辞职,海瑞从道德模范到被高高挂起,被攻击的点仍然是道德,用放大镜去找任何人的道德问题不可能找不到,实际上是因为他动了既得利益集团的蛋糕。戚南塘成也居正败也居正,国有良将而不用,这是国家的悲哀。李贽左奔右突苦苦求索而不得其解,对君权等产生质疑是可贵的,放在明末却不合时宜。以上并未提出激烈改革,均在制度内加以调整完善,尽力补足技术之不足,却无不失败,皆因制度已至山穷水尽,无人不成为牺牲品。萨尔浒之败就是一个总体现…,一周之内十万军队被努尔哈赤各个击破。败亡结果不可避免,所不同的不过是这里出错还是那里出错。败绩影响深远,处理更不得人心。英勇战死者成为替罪羊,怯懦逃命者反而加官进爵,明末,劣币驱逐良币比比皆是。万历国本之争等是偶然事件,没有这些发生,国家仍然是日末途穷。数十年之后,多年惰政、不作为、妥协、漠不关心的恶果就出现了,有清军在扬州、嘉定、广州等地造成的大屠杀为证。到底谁该负责?皇帝,朝堂衮衮诸公,吸附在国家身上吸血的特权阶层?雪崩来临的时候,没有一片雪花是无辜的。第三部分大厦倾颓。往更远追溯,封建社会的下滑从安史之乱就注定了,在此之后,大国自信开明从容气度不再,统治者日趋保守。但这次不同往日,不仅是亡国,更是亡天下,用顾炎武的话说,小民都感受到了切身之痛。剃发令掀起了又一轮反抗高潮。放眼看看世界,西班牙无敌舰队征服了整个美洲,欧洲完成了文艺复兴,俄国忙于领土扩张…进入16世纪,不知不觉,我们已落后巨大身位。旧世界的荣光已经淡去,该来的始终要来,该经历的始终要经历,直到一个崭新的时代来临。

© zw.gblji.com  掩卷思想网    版权所有  京ICP备12007688号